Population genetics by Knud Christensen

Division of Animal Genetics


Chapter 1. Introduction, quantitative versus qualitative (Mendelian) genetics

Chapter 2. Hardy-Weinberg law for gene frequency stability in large populations

Chapter 3. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

Chapter 4. Relationship and inbreeding

Chapter 5. Test of simple genetic hypotheses, experimental or field data

Chapter 6. Definition of quantitative traits, breeding values and heritability

Chapter 7. Estimation of breeding values

Chapter 8. Genetic changes by selection

Chapter 9. Inbreeding, crossing and bred structure

Chapter 10. Chromosomes and chromosome aberrations

Chapter 11. Genetics of hair and coat colour in mammals (under construction)

Chapter 12. Estimation- and bio-technology and disease resistance

Chapter 13. Exercises and solutions, in Danish

Chapter 14. Genetic calculations, applets and other programs


The present genetics notes are produced as a substitute for 'Veterinary Genetics' by FW.Nicolas, Oxford University Press, 1989. This book was not available after 1995.

The notes are produced for a course for veterinary students. Therefore, efforts have been made to adjust the notes for students with a biological background, and at the same time supply a minimal set of formulas to describe the relationship between practical observations and genetic theory. In addition to the description of traits with simple Mendelian inheritance, the description of the genetics for traits (diseases) with multifactoriel aetiology has also been emphasized, here the application of correct breeding plans make it possible to  significantly lower the frequency of the disease.

The genetics notes are available on the www server, which can be reached from the address: www.ihh.kvl.dk/htm/kc/popgen/genetics/genetik.htm. Both an English and a Danish version is available. The online voice version includes a slide show with more than 350 slides. The voice in the voice version belongs to Anne Asp Poulsen who study English at the Copenhagen University, she also gave comments on the English style in the text and figures.

The online notes include a number of links (underlined in the text) to other servers and to extended calculation examples and data programs (applets).

There is no independent exercise section yet in the English version. But to each applet there is an example and one or more exercises for solution.

Ass. professor Peter Sestoft has advised me while producing the applets.

Some students which had the important background of being in the process of learning the topic have commented on the text. Any proposals for additional improvements are welcome.

2. English edition, May 2003; Knud Christensen


Christensen, L.G.,  Husdyravl - teori og praksis, DSR Forlag, 1999.

Falcorner,D.S. & Mackay T., Introduction to Quantitative Genetics, Longman Scientific & Technical, 1996.

Nicolas, F.W., Veterinary Genetics, Oxford University Press, 1989.

Nicolas, F.W., Introduction to Veterinary Genetics, Oxford University Press, 1996.

Samuel, M., Statistics for the life science, Prentice-Halls,1989.

Strachan, T. & Read A.P., Human Molecular Genetics, pp.597, John Wiley & Sons, 1996.

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